Science without a billion dollar lab:
Seeking the truth about masks, last winter, I experimented with the generally accepted and promoted type of (used against the Wuhan Covid-19 virus) mask by selecting a very cold night for my brief research.
As we learned in elementary school science class, we humans exhale carbon dioxide, among other things, along with water vapor. Add to that, viruses/germs are carried by water vapor.
Holding the mask tightly against my face, upon exhaling, I could see my water vapor exhale permeating through the mask. So, I concluded, viruses can be transmuted through all masks which we humans were ordered to wear, unless said mask is/was a self-contained-sealed apparatus for breathing.